US President Donald Trump issued an executive order [text] Monday titled reimposing certain sanctions against Iran.
In a press statement [text], the White House criticized the previous Iran nuclear deal, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action of July 14, 2015 (JCPOA). The JCPOA agreement [JURIST report], signed by Iran, Germany, the five permanent members of the UN Security Council and the EU, was intended to put Iran on a de-nuclearization path. The US withdrew from the JCPOA in May, prompting opposition [JURIST report] from Iran. The Trump administration stated JCPOA did not effectively put Iran on a de-nuclearization path and that it “threw a lifeline of cash to a murderous dictatorship that has continued to spread bloodshed, violence, and chaos.” The administration claims Iran used funds obtained from the JCPOA to fund nuclear-capable missiles, terrorism, and to support conflict abroad.
In Executive Order 12957, the White House draws authority from the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, the National Emergencies Act, the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code.
The order restricts individual parties from trading in metals, petrochemical products, technology, or lending expert assistance with prescribed Iranian entities. It prohibits Iran from acquiring US bank notes and restricts financial transactions on the Iranian rial. The order also authorizes sanctions for the exchange of goods and services that may have been used by the Iranian government to commit human rights abuses.