Bahrain court rejects request to release activist
Bahrain court rejects request to release activist
Flag of Bahrain valign=top align=left border=1 hspace=0 vspace=4></td><td><img
loading=lazy src=/images/s.gif border=0 height=1 width=5></td></tr></tbody></table><p>[JURIST] A lawyer representing human rights activist <a
href=https://twitter.com/NABEELRAJAB>Nabeel Rajab</a> [personal Twitter account] said Sunday that a judge has rejected a request to approve a conditional early release, for which Rajab is now eligible under Bahraini law. <a
href=http://www.state.gov/ >US Department of State</a> [official website] spokeswoman Jen Psaki commented on news of the <a
href=http://www.trust.org/item/20131203135152-26cs2>early release denial</a> [Reuters report], stating that the US continues to urge Bahrain to permit all sectors of society to peacefully voice their political views. Rajab, founder of the <a
href=http://www.bahrainrights.org/en>Bahrain Center for Human Rights</a> (BCHR) [advocacy website], was originally sentenced to serve <a
href=http://www.bahrainrights.org/en/node/5387>three years in prison</a> for leading unlicensed protests against the powerful Sunni Muslim al-Khalifa dynasty, though his sentence was <a
href=/paperchase/2012/12/bahrain-court-cuts-prison-sentence-for-activist-nabeel-rajab.php>reduced to one year</a> [JURIST report] after he had already served his sentence. He has already served three quarters of his prison term. In its rejection, the court did not cite any reason for its decision that Rajab is ineligible for release.</p><p>Bahrain has faced international criticism for its crackdown against dissidents since anti-government protests began last year. In October <a
href=http://www.hrw.org/ >Human Rights Watch</a> (HRW) [advocacy website] urged Bahrain’s court of appeals to <a
href=/paperchase/2012/10/bahrain-center-for-human-rights-urges-king-to-release-their-leader.php>overturn the conviction of Rajab</a> [JURIST report]. Also in October, the Bahrain Court of Cassation <a
href=/paperchase/2012/10/jurist-the-court-of-cassation.php>upheld jail sentences</a> [JURIST report] for nine medics convicted for their involvement in Bahrain’s pro-democracy uprising. According to <a
href=http://www.bna.bh/portal/en>Bahrain News Agency</a>, the medics were working at <a
href=http://www.moh.gov.bh/en/HealthEstablishment/SMC.aspx>Salmaniya Medical Complex</a> [official websites], and, during the time of the uprising, “took over the complex, detained and imprisoned kidnapped persons, and transformed the hospital to a place of illegal gathering and strikes, in violation of laws.” According to <a
href=http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/ >Physicians for Human Rights</a> [official website], at least 95 health workers were arrested in Bahrain only after some medics treated those hurt by security forces and spoke out against the crackdown against protesters, which included firing upon ambulances. Last month government officials <a
href=/paperchase/2012/09/bahrain-pledges-to-follow-un-plan-to-improve-human-rights-conditions.php>pledged to fulfill</a> [JURIST report] the 158 recommendations included in the <a
href=http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/BHSession13.aspx>UN Universal Periodic Review</a> [materials] regarding human rights abuses against political opposition. HRW called on Bahrain to follow through with their promises, but raised doubts as to whether the government is fully committed to reform.</p></div></div></article></div></section><aside
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Nixon nominated Harrold Carswell to the US Supreme Court

On January 19, 1970, President Richard Nixon nominated Judge G. Harrold Carswell of the US Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals to the US Supreme Court. The nomination became intensely controversial after a reporter discovered the text of a 1948 political campaign speech by Carswell in which he said "segregation of the races is proper." The Senate eventually rejected the nomination 51-45.
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Afterword
In November 2004, a JURIST reader wrote with regard to this entry:
You are factually correct. The speech is accurately quoted. But the most significant part of it wasn't that quote -- which, after all, reflected the law of the land through Brown v. Board of Education.
The most significant part was Carswell's avowal of his "firm, vigorous belief in the principles of white supremacy." I recall this because I was the reporter who discovered the speech, in the basement of the Wilkinson County courthouse in Georgia, where it was preserved as lead story in The Irwinton Bulletin, a weekly Carswell edited, which was kept because it was the legal paper of record."
Edward RoederRoeder later added: "just to ensure the accuracy of my quote from the speech -- including capitalization and punctuation -- let me check it. At the moment, I'm at the Library of Congress, a couple of blocks from my home where I have a photograph I took of the speech as printed in 1948 in the weekly newspaper.
Another great quote spawned by that confirmation battle was by Sen. Judiciary Committee Ranking Republican Roman Hruska, in response to the charge that Carswell was "mediocre." Hruska famously told the cameras staked outside the hearing room:
"Even if he was mediocre, there are a lot of mediocre judges and people and lawyers . . . They are entitled to a little representation, aren't they, and a little chance? We can't have all Brandeises and Cardozos and Frankfurters and stuff like that there."...
One other aspect of that nomination might be worth noting. After Carswell's defeat, the seat went to Harry Blackmun. A year and a half later, he wrote Roe v. Wade," probably the most controversial and far-reaching SCOTUS decision since Brown."And finally:I found and reviewed my photo of Carswell's 1948 speech. First, it may be helpful to provide a bit of context for the part you quoted. The graf read, "I Am A Southerner By Ancestry, Birth, Training, Inclination, Belief And Practice. I Believe That Segregation Of The Races is Proper And The ONLY Practical And Correct Way Of Life In Our States."
The first letter of each word is capitalized, the the word ONLY is in all caps.
The "white supremacy" quote, two grafs later, is as strident: "I Yield To NO MAN, As A Fellow Candidate, Or As A Fellow Citizen, In The Firm Vigirous Belief In The Principles Of White Supremacy, And I Shall Always Be So Governed." Again, the first letter of each word is capitalized, and NO MAN is in all caps. "Vigorous" is misspelled in the newspaper.JURIST thanks Mr. Roeder for sharing his recollections - and his role in a fascinating snippet of Supreme Court history.

Tribunal established for Japan war criminals

On January 19, 1946, General Douglas MacArthur promulgated the Charter for the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, creating a court in Tokyo to try Japanese war criminals after World War II. Pursuant to Article 7 of the Charter, the Court's Rules of Procedure were set three months later. The judges and prosecutors represented the allied nations of the United States, U.S.S.R., China, Holland, Canada, France, New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, the Philippines, and India.
Article 6 of the Charter divided the accused War Criminals into three classes. Class A war criminals were those guilty of crimes against peace. Class B war criminals were those found guilty of actual war crimes. The highest level war criminals fell into Class C for crimes against humanity. Court prosecutors indicted over 5,700 people in Japan for Class B and C War Crimes. When the tribunal's final judgment was issued two years later on November 1, 1948, 984 of the defendants were convicted and sentenced to death. 475 of them were convicted and sentenced to life in prison, while 2,944 received lesser prison terms. Finally, 1,297 Japanese defendants were either acquitted, not tried, or not sentenced.

Many of Japanese defendants were indicted for their actions during the occupation of China. Read the indictment of Class A war criminals involved in the Rape of Nanking.

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