Although the protests that ousted Mubarak in 2011 bore similarities to protests across the region known as the Arab Spring, the country has not always been in lockstep with the politics of other Middle Eastern countries. A historic peace deal brokered in 1979 by US President Jimmy Carter between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin, known as the Camp David Accords, preceded Sadat’s assassination in 1981 at the hands of Islamic extremists. His death instigated the expulsion of Egypt from the Arab League until 1989. Following Sadat’s assassination, Egypt re-enacted the country’s emergency laws in 1981, which stifled political dissent and enabled the country’s security forces to actively oppress opposition political parties. The emergency laws originally came into force in 1967, the same year as the Six-Day War in which Israel defeated Egypt, Jordan and Syria, and took control of the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem and the West Bank. When Mubarak took over following Sadat’s assassination, the country enjoyed a time of stability and economic growth. However, the emergency laws bred corruption in the country as the government cracked down on political dissent.