On February 26, 1919, US President Woodrow Wilson signed the Grand Canyon National Park Act into law. The Act placed the Grand Canyon under the protection of the Department of the Interior (DOI)'s National Park Service. Prior to 1919, the only federal protections afforded to the site were through executive orders. The Act protected the Grand Canyon from non-permitted mineral exploitation, irrigation projects and construction, but maintained the Havasupai Indians' right to use the land. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized the Grand Canyon National Park as a World Heritage Site in October 1979.
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