On August 10, 2005, the US Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a Virginia law requiring the daily recital of the Pledge of Allegiance in state public schools. Attorneys challenging the law argued that the Pledge's phrase "one nation under God" represented governmental endorsement of religion. In the same year, a judge for the US Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that recitation of the Pledge was unconstitutional. The Pledge of Allegiance, particularly the phrase "under God," has been a contentious issue over the past decade. In July 2006, the US House even voted to prohibit federal courts from ruling on this issue. However, the Senate never took up the legislation. In recent years, related constitutional challenges have arisen in several states, including in Texas, Florida and California.
Learn more about the Pledge of Allegiance from the JURIST news archive.