On May 24, 2011, the European Commission (EC) proposed reforms to modernize European Union (EU) intellectual property rights laws. The laws were intended to create more centralized regulation and help combat counterfeiting operations. The EC stated that counterfeiters were expanding their services beyond copying luxury goods to include fake health and hygiene products, car parts, and cosmetics. In February 2012, the EC began preparations through the European Court of Justice (ECJ) to ratify the international Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), which has sparked controversy over fears that it will lead to censorship.
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