On November 27, 2005, Philippines President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was cleared of charges of election fraud by former election commissioner Virgilio Garcillano. The allegations against Arroyo claimed that she ordered Garcillano to rig the 2004 presidential election results to give her a million vote margin of victory against her opponent, Fernando Poe, Jr. However, Garcillano came forward to testify that the taped conversations presented as evidence of his collusion with Arroyo took place after the election had already taken place. Multiple impeachment cases against Arroyo were subsequently quashed. However, Arroyo was formally charged with multiple counts of corruption and election fraud in November 2011.