On December 28, 1945, Congress officially recognized the Pledge of Allegiance and encouraged its recitation in schools.
The Pledge was supposedly written in 1892 by Francis Bellamy, a Baptist minister, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Columbus Day. The words "under God" were added by Congress in 1954. The revised version of the Pledge was more recently the subject of litigation before the United States Supreme Court originally brought by Michael Newdow, a parent who unsuccessfully objected to his daughter's school district policy requiring daily recitation of the Pledge. The court ruled that Newdow had no standing. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life offers more Pledge of Allegiance resources.