[JURIST] The Spanish Supreme Court [official website, in Spanish] on Thursday denied [order, DOC; in Spanish] an appeal by National Court judge Baltasar Garzon [BBC profile; JURIST news archive], ruling that he may be formally charged for exceeding his jurisdictional authority. The five-judge panel upheld [El Pais report, in Spanish] the ability to review Garzon's actions related to his investigation [JURIST report] into war crimes allegedly committed under Francisco Franco [BBC backgrounder] during the Spanish Civil War [LOC backgrounder]. In October 2008, Garzon ordered the exhumation of 19 mass graves in Spain and ordered government agencies and the mayors of four cities to produce the names of people buried in mass graves in order to assemble a definitive national registry, despite a 1977 amnesty decree. The decision on whether to pursue charges is now returned to the same judge that issued a February ruling that Garzon may have violated [JURIST report] the amnesty law. If charged and convicted, Garzon could face disbarment. He maintains that he acted within the bounds of the law and appropriately applied the law at all times.
The Supreme Court originally allowed the investigation [JURIST report] into Garzon's actions in May as a result of a complaint filed by Manos Limpias [group website, in Spanish], a union of public servants in Spain that alleged Garzon acted in violation of Penal Code Article 446 [text, in Spanish] when he began his probe into the crimes committed by the Franco regime. Garzon is widely known for using universal jurisdiction [AI backgrounder; JURIST news archive] extensively in the past to bring several high-profile cases, including those against Osama bin Laden and former Latin American dictator Augusto Pinochet [JURIST news archives]. In January, Garzon announced he will begin an inquiry [JURIST report] into the suspected torture and ill-treatment of detainees held at Guantanamo Bay [JURIST news archive]. The Obama administration has not responded to Garzon's questions regarding the open investigation of detainee abuses at the facility. Garzon's inquiry has focused on Spanish citizen and ex-Guantanamo detainee Ahmed Abderraman Hamed [CNN report], and three others whom Garzon has said have significant connections with Spain. The domestic focus is due to recently passed laws [JURIST report] that limit the use of universal jurisdiction to offenses committed by or against Spaniards, or where the perpetrators are in Spain.