Shortly after the rioting, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay [official profile] called for restraint [press release] from all sides and a respect for due process in arrests and prosecutions. Pillay's remarks come two days after violence broke out [NYT report] between Han Chinese and Uighur residents in Xinjiang's regional capital. The Chinese government says [Xinhua report] that the majority of those killed in the violence were Han residents killed by protesters, although the World Uyghur Congress and the Uyghur American Association [advocacy websites] say that many protesters were killed by authorities but not included in the official death toll. The Uighur population, which is Muslim, is opposed [BBC backgrounder] to China's restrictive bans on religious practice, and say that the recent influx of Han Chinese has disenfranchised non-Chinese-speaking Uighurs.
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