On June 27, 1934, the National Housing Act created
Housing Administration (now part of HUD),
which put the power of the federal government behind home financing,
helping to make home ownership a reality for tens of millions of
Americans and powering the residential real estate industry.
On June 27, 2001, the International Court of
Justice (ICJ) ruled in the LaGrand case that foreign-nationals must
be informed of their right to contact the embassy of their home
country after arrest. Brothers Karl and Walter LaGrand were arrested
in 1982 for murder and armed robbery in Arizona. However,
authorities did not inform the men of their right to assistance from
the German consulate under the terms of the Vienna
Convention on Consular Relations. The U.S.
Supreme Court in 1999 upheld the convictions in Germany v.
U.S. Germany then brought the issue before
the ICJ, which issued a provisional order to stay the executions.
Arizona nonetheless executed the LaGrand brothers in 1999. Two years
later, the ICJ held
that the U.S. had violated both the provisional order and the Vienna